Yama and Niyama

What constitutes, Raja Yoga, is listed in the second chapter, Sādhana Pāda in the YogaSutraSādhana Pāda means laying out the practical hints so a seeker can actually practice to make any progress on the yogic path.

यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयोऽष्टावङ्गानि॥२.२९

Yama-niyama-āsana-prāṇāyāma-pratyāhāra-dhāraṇā-dhyāna-samādhayo’ṣṭāvaṅgāni||29||

According to this sutra the eight limbs, aṣṭāṅga are: Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prānayāma, Pratyāhāra, Dhārana, Dhyāna and Samādhi.

This post is only an introduction to the first two limbs: Yama and Niyama. In Samskritam, Yama may be interpreted as restraint, discipline, self-regulation. Although, Niyama means observance, it can also considered as a form of discipline. There are five restraints and five observances; ten principles that operate on every action, word and thought.

Partaking solely in academic discussions or acting on pretense without strict adherence to Yama and Niyama is not conducive to put each principle into practice. The main object of this relentless ethical code is to eliminate completely all mental and emotional disturbances which charactize the life of an ordinary human being (Taimni). This prepares serious seekers to journey safely on the spiritual path.

At the outset, it is important to remember that morality discussed through yoga philosophy (principles) is not of the conventional type or even the ordinary religious type. Here, however, it is a transcendental morality aimed at liberating an individual from the bonds of illusion and ignorance. Consequently, the virtues expected from a seeker is of a much wider scope and has a deeper significance than what appears on the surface. Each virtue, then, has to be practiced to a higher degree of perfection. (Taimni)

Eknath Easwaran said taking “my life is a school” approach would provide numerous opportunities to experiment these priniciples. Whether it be marriage or rearing a child, graduate school or corporate life, phase of life – midlife or teenage; each provides its own challenges to practice all the ethics. This was what I needed to hear to bring the 8 limbs to life. With this attitude, obstacles became opportunities. When I did catch myself practicing any ethic, my nightly reflection was filled with gratitude. In this way, each conclusion – success or failure, charted my progress, deepened my faith in the tools and boosted my confidence to continue on the path.

Since it is difficult to find exact translations for Samskritham terms, I have included multiple meanings for each of the Yama and Niyama, in an attempt to preserve their authenticity.

Yama

अहिंसासत्यास्तेयब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहा यमाः॥२.३०॥

Ahiṁsā-satya-asteya-brahmacarya-aparigrahā yamāḥ||30||

The first limb, Yama, यम, restraint, deals with those behaviors that show respect for self and others. Using the word restraint may imply taking away certain privileges to be in a yogic frame of mind. On the contrary – it is so much more. I discovered that cultivating restraints is really cultivating the ability to manage my feelings – the ability to stop myself from doing or saying things that are not sensible or correct.

यम

Restraints

अहिंसा       (Ahimsā) Non-Harming, Non-Violence, Kindness, Dynamic Peacefulness
सत्य          (Sathya) Truth, Authenticity, Sincerity, Benevolence
अस्तेय       (Astheya) Non-Stealing, Honesty, Abundance
ब्रह्मचर्य      (Brahmacharya) Moderation, Continence, Dedicated to the Divine
अपरिग्रह     (Aparigraha) Non-Hoarding, Self reliance, Renouncing, Simplicity, Generosity

For example, the first Yama is Ahimsā, non-harming.  Alice Christensen stated that Ahimsā is listed as the first discipline because the practice of the other nine ethics depended on it. According to her, when trying to practice the second ethic, Satya, truthfulness, lying to myself is a form of harming; or in the practice of the third ethic, Asteya, non-stealing, wasting my time is stealing from myself which is harming.

In Rāja Yoga, the traditional practice of Yamas is equated to taking a vow, an earnest promise of dedicated practice. Patanjali refers to it as a Great Vow, Mahavratham, in the Yoga Sutra (2:31). This implies the seriousness of accepting the responsibility of the practice of Yamas, (Niyamas too!) without the limitations of time, space, season, family, country, etc.; implying – although forgiveness is paramount when I fail, excuses are not entertained when Mahavratham, the Great Vow has been activated.

Niyama

शौचसन्तोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः॥२.३२॥

Śauca-santoṣa-tapaḥ-svādhyāya-eśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ||32||

Niyama, नियम, Observances, the second limb, are those behaviors that convey positive, uplifting self actions. Niyama, is the act of perceiving and respecting the requirements of the laws of nature while recognizing our human imperfections and self-centeredness. It helps to cultivate gratitude and sacredness towards daily duties and activities, and makes us rely on the tools to bring us a step closer to Samādhi, spiritual bliss.

नियम

Observances

शौच                 (Shaucha) Purity, Cleanliness, Clarity
सन्तोष               (Santosha) Contentment, Peacefulness
तपस्                  (Tapas) Effort, Heat, Discipline, Sacrifice
स्वाध्याय             (Svadhyaya) Self-Study, Reflection, Introspection
ईश्वरप्रणिधान      (Ishvara Pranidhana) Surrender, Faith, Gratitude, Devotion, Higher Purpose

For example, the first Niyama is Shaucha, Purity or Cleanliness, refers to both external and internal. The external concept of Śaucha suggests a clean body through daily ablutions, clean surroundings (owned and public), fresh and clean food to purify the body. Anger, hate, prejudice, greed, pride, fear, negative thoughts are known toxins to body and mind. Hence, purity of speech, clarity of emotions and dusting the cobwebs of the mind is internal Śaucha.

Wisdom

It is imperative to study each ethic and the eight limbs in detail to progress towards mastery. However, struggling to cultivate them may indicate that they are not present within or perhaps the opposite qualities exist. Since the eight limbs work together as one entity, gurus suggests that while you practice āsana, observe the behavior of the body. Regardless of what posture you are doing, the whole body participates; the inner intelligence restores balance and comfort (Swāmi Venkateshānanda). When this happens ‘self-discipline’ begins to manifest effortlessly.

Next Post: First Yama: Ahimsā – Non-harming or Dynamic Peacefulness

*******************************

Bell, Charlotte.2007. Mindful Yoga Mindful Life. Rodmell Press

Christensen, Alice. 1998. Yoga of the Heart: Ten Ethical Principles for Gaining Limitless Growth, Confidence and Achievement. American Yoga Association

Kriyananda, Swami. 2011. The Art and Science of Raja Yoga. Crystal Clarity Publishers

Venkateshānanda, Swami. 2011. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Motilal Banarasidass Publishers, New Delhi, India.

How to study the YogaSutras

Scriptures or religious texts may be used for many reasons; mostly to provide meaning and purpose, and to evoke a deeper connection with the Divine. Many look to these texts to the convey sacred truths and use them to promote ritualistic practices and moralistic experiences that foster communal identity.

But the YogaSutra is not a religious text; notice the lack of dogma within its pages as the author implores each student to take on the challenge of experimenting with the techniques to arrive at absolute freedom.

Feuerstein declares that the reader should appreciate the fact that Patañjali’s work is a technical treatise and not just a popular summary. Therefore, it would be entirely unsatisfactory to attempt to understand complex concepts in the sutras using everyday vocabulary when the author himself had to find specific Sanskrit terms.

Who 

Traditionally, a Guru is responsible to elaborate each sutra after the student has mastered preliminary practices. Please refer to this blog to learn about the nature of a student-seeker.

The Yoga Sutra is for serious student-seekers of yoga who want to embark on a personal journey of transformation. This ancient text was presented orally as a guide for refining the mind to achieve the highest state of concentration. Nowadays, with surplus of printed books, you can read the Yoga Sutra cover to cover, sutra by sutra or browse online summaries to make some meaning of it. Because the sutras are not linear, it is easy to become disappointed if you did not get what you anticipated.

An Acharya, or “one who walks the path”, an experienced teacher of yoga philosophy can help you appreciate the layers of complexity in this text. This exquisite work has transformational concepts embedded in every word. Each aphorism has a clear message and implications. To apply the meaning of the sutras to our life we most definitely need a teacher.

Language of the text

While utilizing the available translations, bhashya, note that in each commentary some Sutras may be rendered differently, but sincere effort is made by authors to avoid moving away from its essential message.

Swami Venkateshananda of Divine Life Society declares that anyone who translates a text which is in the Samskritham language is confronted by two difficulties:
(a) not all languages have concise words or phrases which accurately convey the exact sense in which the Sanskrit word is used in the text; and
(b) the each Sanskrit word has a number of meanings, and it is easier to choose the correct meaning when the word is used in a structurally complete prose or verse, than when it occurs in the Sutras.

The Yoga Sutra cannot be read as fiction. It is imperative to remember that ideas and concepts are scattered over several sutras in more than one chapter. These concepts are also repeated in different ways and multiple words are used to describe one idea or same words are used in different sutras to convey different meanings. For example – Samapatti and Samadhi, Purusha and Ishvara are used interchangeably; chitta and manas as mind or thoughts, is a comprehensive term for the thinking principle (Paramahamsa Yogananda). This makes it open to multiple interpretations which can be disorienting to a casual reader.

Traditional language of the YogaSutra focused on discovering the one’s true Self in Samadhi and finding freedom from bondage, Kaivalya. This is suited for a yogi living in the mountains leading a monastic life. However, the idea of self analysis, experimentation and self realization is sought by all kinds of people from a hermit to a householder and all classes of beings.

For example, in his translation  Marshall Govindan includes a section titled “practice” after each sutra. Here, he asks us to pick an activity and apply a sutra. Like sutra 2:33 – वितर्कबाधने प्रतिपक्षभावनम्॥२.३३॥ //Vitaraka Badanay Pratipaksha Bhavanam// – which means that when you have afflicted thinking, then contemplate and take another view—look at the situation from another perspective.

This type of practice allows a householder-student struggling to bring the sutras to life, an opening to verify its essence in her own practice. Patañjali surely knew what he was talking about when he complied the Yoga Sutra. But each of us reading the sutras and its various commentaries will only glean different meanings based on our childhood and life experiences.

Commentaries 

Many different translations of this ancient text exist. Every translation is an approximation which can improved upon (Feuerstein). Some may be confusing and sometimes difficult due to the variety of interpretations. Others may seem long and complicated or short and inadequate – each trying their best to make it accessible to the ‘current’ generation.

Furthermore, knowledge of both science & philosophy is essential to study yoga. Yoga states that every organ (body) is related to the psyche (consciousness). For example: when one is fearful or anxious, one may experience palpitations, blurry vision, dry mouth, frequent urination or irregular breathing. (Mishra, M.D.)

Yogananda asserts that Patañjali has presented a systematized means of reuniting the soul with Spirit between layers of knowledge embedded in each sutra. The popular saying “Don’t judge a book by its cover’ – can come in handy when you venture into the world of sutras. Instead of wondering what another translation can do for you, put yourself into a beginners mindset with an intention to learn.

How to Study 

Obviously there are many ways to study the sutras. While it is best to learn from an experienced teacher, a study group, Satsang, can be energizing and fun. Here, multiple translations are utilized, ideas elaborated upon; you can participate in animated discussions and derive the best possible meaning to apply in your daily life. Most importantly, it helps to know that there are others like you, struggling to understand the mysteries of yoga.

Still some gurus say, as a practicing yogi, you do not always require an interpreter; you need to come to your own understanding through systematic study and disciplined practice.

Here are a few limited suggestions; see if one works for you. Then again, think outside the box and come up with your own way.

Method  1

  • Read the original quote, its word for word meaning, followed by the literal translation. 
  • You may refer to 1-2 books at a time. More than that may be overwhelming.
  • Try to study a minimum of 3-5 sutras a day. More than that will make them seem complicated than they really are.
  • Sutras are intended for deep study. Sit with one sutra in meditation. You may repeat the literal meaning a few times in your mind.

Method  2

  • Chant or listen to the sutras being chanted. Close your eyes and allow the vibration of sounds to penetrate the mind.
  • Surrender to the rhythm of the chant and enjoy the chant without having to worry about the meaning. Allow your own meaning to unfold.
  • Have faith that the meaning will be revealed to you at the right time.
  • Journal your experiences.

Method 3

  • Choose 2-4 translations or commentaries to compare each sutra.
  • Write down the main descriptions and interpretations.
  • Take it with you into meditation. Be completely aware of unexpected revelations. 
  • Then try bring it to life by applying its essence in your daily activities. 

Method 4

  • Identify the concepts like Sadhana, practice, or Karma, patterned actions.
  • Pick one and study each concept thoroughly.
  • Cross reference these concepts with other related texts and notice its application.
  • Return to your meditation seat and be a witness.

Wisdom

Concepts elucidated in the Yoga Sutras can be understood through an intuitive state which we can enter solely through our practice. The ‘Truths’ are based on experiences of many mystics, yogis, saints and sages, who have realized and borne witness to them throughout ages. The facts of ‘Higher Yoga’ can neither be proved or demonstrated. Their appeal is to the intuition, not to the intellect. (I.K. Taimini)

Working with the Yoga Sutras should not be a chore. It should be a positive experience that will assist your transformation in your yogic journey.

Notice if you become emotional by those sutras that you label ‘difficult’. Or those that you get attached to because you think you have understood them. Reflect to consider why. Is it because these are areas where you already excel or need your greatest work?

Strive to practice at least one concept in the sutras patiently for a period of time. Be forgiving of your practice whenever necessary. Trust that what you need to focus on will jump out at you in some way.

If the doctrines of yoga are studied in the light of both ancient and modern thought, it is much easier for the student to understand and appreciate them. (Taimini)

Personal Study

When I was introduced to the Yoga Sutra in 2002 at YogaLife Institutethe book that was required for the 8 week session seemed so unfriendly. At least that’s how my mind perceived it, implying a lack of readiness.

However, in 2004, I read the sections needed for teacher training from the same book (Swami Satchitananda). After reading the required sections I went back to read this book cover to cover. I enjoyed the way he spiritualized the dry practices through wonderful stories.  I realize that what I learned then is different from what I am comprehending now.

During teacher training class, my teacher would read a sutra’s given commentary first. Then he would read some supporting notes from this beaten-up notebook. At first I did not think much of it. Four months into the training, I happened to observe him placing a few ripped pages carefully back in the book and perceived a sense of reverence with which he held those old pages. I wondered if it contained his notes from the days he spent with his teacher in Mumbai. Maybe it also contained his efforts as a student to gain deeper understanding of this wonderful text. Then it dawned on me that if I were to gain a deeper understanding of what I was being taught I needed to be present with similar reverence. To receive the message he was presenting out of those pages then became a privilege. My sincere gratitude to Acharya, Bob Butera, for imparting this unexpected but indispensable aspect of learning. I try to remember this each time an opportunity to listen to spiritual teachers presents itself.

Eventually, after many restarts it dawned on me that I did not how to study the text. Reading cover to cover was one way. Multiple translations and commentaries helped, but something was missing; a guideline – which I eventually found embedded in the introduction section in the books listed below.

Each introduction I realized brought forth the authors’ perceptive; how they viewed the sutras, how they went about studying it and the differences in their approaches. For example, Barbara Stoler Miller has grouped the aphorisms into logical sections and commented on each group. BKS Iyengar on the other hand, identified ‘concepts’ scattered in multiple places throughout the text and has rearranged the sutras accordingly. In his commentary, Swami Satyananda Saraswati has also presented ways to link some of the concepts to other texts like the Bhagavad Gita, Dhammapada, while Paramahamsa Yogananda uncovered the similarities within Christianity and Sufism.

This has inspired me to patiently find all sutras connected to each concept and follow the links to other texts making it an amazing study. Although it can be a frustrating process to unravel its inner meanings, unexpected insights has brought forth unexplainable joy. It becomes an adventure then to apply these insights everyday to spiritualize a mundane act.

Final Thoughts

The YogaSutras contain a roadmap to reach our highest potential as we travel the yogic path (Govindan). With each attempt made at the YogaSutra study, you are taught to work through your traditional beliefs and habituated behaviors using disciplined practices – in anticipation of the coveted spiritual union.

Remember the wisdom presented in the YogaSutras is relevant to any generation, ancient or modern. You can approach the study with curiosity or with arrogance; what you take away will either expand your personal truth or deter the progress on the path. You must be ready to devote ample time to study and receive its message.

Hearing the Yoga Sutras chanted helps to appreciate the musicality of the recitation. iTunes has a soothing version by Ante, Felicia, Saraswati and Sundar for you to enjoy.  Each sutra is on a different track which makes it painless to learn the Samskritham pronunciation.

The principles taught here can uplift and inspire – turning daily humanness into divine action. If guided by the ‘right’ teachers, the practices outlined in the YogaSutra serves the needs of the householder-yogi more than a hermit-yogi in these modern times.

The first sutra is –

अथ योग-अनुशासनम्” –Atha Yoga-Anushasanaum“.

“Now (begins) the discipline of yoga”.

***********************************

Further Reading

Aranya Hariharananda, Swami; Mukerji, P.N. 1963. Yoga Philosophy of Patañjali. (Reprinted in 1981 by State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.

Mishra, Rammurti. M.D. 1973. Yoga Sutras – A Textbook of Yoga Psychology. Doubleday Anchor Press, Garden City, New York

Prabhavananda, Swami; Isherwood, Christopher. Patañjali Yoga Sutras. Ramakrishna Mission  Press, Mylapore, India.

Feuerstein, Georg. 1979. The Yoga-Sutra of Patañjali – A New translation and Commentary. Inner Traditions International, Rochester, Vermont.

Saraswati Satyananda, Swami. 1976. Four Chapters on Freedom – Commentary on Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. Yoga Publications Trust, Bihar School of Yoga, Munger, India

Taimni, I.K., 1961. The Science of Yoga. The Ind-Com Press, Chennai, India

Iyengar, B.K.S.2013. Core of Yoga Sutras – The Definitive Guide to the Philosophy of Yoga. Harper-Collins India

Satchitananda, Swami. 1978. The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. Integral Yoga Publications, Buckingham VA.

Yogananda, Paramahamsa; Kriyananda, Swami. 2013. Demystifying Patañjali – The Yoga Sutras. Crystal Clarity Publishers, Nevada City, CA

Govindan, Marshall. 2000. Kriya Yoga Sutra of Patañjali and the Siddhas – Translation, Commentary and Practice. Kris Yoga Publications, Quebec, Canada

The YogaSutra

There are people who say that most texts – scripture or academic can be a tedious read. While some knowledge can be gained from studying these texts and their various interpretations, they realize that ‘true’ understanding is largely intuitive – a continuous outpouring of ‘aha’ moments. Others while enquiring about the phase of life you are in might be implying that empty nesters can happily dedicate more time to texts of all sorts – even the Yoga Sutra, while a mother of three is finding her moment of joy between the pages of Goodnight Moon, Charlotte’s Web or Harry Potter.

I was introduced to the Yoga Sutra in 2002 in one of the intermediate classes at YogaLife Institute. I looked through the book that was needed for the 8 week session and put it back on the shelf, obviously not ready to give up Goodnight Moon. Life had the upper hand – toddler and parents in the house – family and work – different priorities. In 2004, I read only the prescribed sections needed for teacher training using 3 different commentaries, grasping mostly the superficial meaning and an occasional deeper significance.

In 2007, I bought another book – or two in an attempt to restart when I realized that I did not how to study the text. It is only in the last few years that I have returned to study the sutras more patiently while staying alert for unexpected insights in my daily practice.

The Student

Although the YogaSutra, योगसूत्र is one among many yogic texts, it is the one frequently referred to by yoga practitioners all over the world. It is an extraordinary treatise which outlines a royal path for self-transformation by addressing the physical, mental, emotional facets while spiritualizing the human existence. I am realizing what I learn on the way down to my toes is more important than just touching my toes.

For example – how many times do you think of surrendering your ego as you drop your head down to touch your toes? The Yoga Sutra is teaching me to separate the action and the sense of doer-ship (second chapter). Of course, it is difficult to separate the ego from the action, but noticing the presence of the ego in each action has been a great learning experience for me.

Or – when your arms reach over your head in sun salute, the joy you feel at the glimpse of the infinite sky is just a morsel of what is to come when you realize the crux of yoga in Samadhi (first chapter). I presumed to have experienced a tiniest morsel of this joy on my yoga mat. In any case, the author clearly states that yoga is not about poses, asana, and then proceeds to lay down the dos’ and don’ts of Abhyasa, yoga-practice in preparation to infinitely multiply this joy

The Author

The YogaSutra, योगसूत्र, was authored by Patañjali, पतञ्जलि, who is also credited with writing other texts on Ayurveda and Samskritham. Essentially, nothing of any degree of historical certainty is known about the author (Feuerstein). It is unclear whether Patañjali was an individual or merely a name forged to represent several people living in different periods of time. It appears there were several authors known as Patañjali which was just a family surname according to Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (Aranya & Mukerji).

Patañjali, also a compound word, has been explained by Sanskrit scholars in a few different ways. Leaving the literary paradox for the scholars to decode, here is a popular version that makes him a person. The name, Patañjali comes from a legend surrounding his birth. The story claims that Adhishesha, the divine serpent fell (पत् –puthinto the folded hands (अञ्जलि, Anjali) of a pious woman who had prayed long and hard for a child. Her prayers were answered. She raised this child who is portrayed as a person with the head of a snake and body of a man, who grew up to be Patañjali, पतञ्जलि(पत् +अञ्जलि), the author of this wonderful yogic text, the YogaSutra.

The Text

The YogaSutra, योगसूत्र, contains 196 Sutras, aphorisms. Sutra, सूत्रmeans thread, that connects each of 196 aphorisms. It was structured this way to make it easy for students to memorize the least amount of material in a time where there was no concept of books (Prabhavananda & Isherwood).

The YogaSutra,योगसूत्र, may have been compiled sometime around 350 CE or even as early as 3000 BCE. Now, as we study together we weave this thread and connect our practices to carry this ancient wisdom through time.

Sutras are composed of few words – meant to provide in a very condensed form all essential knowledge for an advanced student of yoga and not to serve as an introduction for a beginner who has yet to learn the abc’s of this subject (Taimni). Each sutra, सूत्र is rich with meaning and depth, even the most ‘advanced student’ can continue to gain new insights after years of study.

The YogaSutra, योगसूत्र is also referred to as Raja Yoga. The text outlines eight limbs, Ashtanga, for self-realization. The confusion regarding Raja and Ashtanga being a type or a style of yoga is dealt with in other posts. Barbara Stoler Miller says “Yoga Sutra is not a sacred scripture but a set of philosophical analyses that probe timeless dilemmas of cognition and obstacles to spiritual tranquility.”

The YogaSutra, योगसूत्र, is not a religious sermon like the Vedas, the Bible or the Koran. The text contains no creed or rituals, verses nor hymns. Although it appears that yoga is a part to Hinduism (Sanathana Dharma), it is actually found in the Sankhya philosophy and can stand on its own without the dogma of religion. Yoga psychology is based on the Sankhya system of philosophy; i.e., you arrive at the truth by calculation, experimentation and careful reflection through the study of YogaSutra.

Despite arising amidst the most religious of all cultures, there is no direct reference to a divine incarnation or goddesses such as Krishna or Durga in the YogaSutra, योगसूत्र. Still, the word Ishvara, ईश्वर, accessible through chanting OM – is mentioned in the first chapter. (YS 1:25-27). What this word actually signifies in Patañjali’s use may be contentious even though some translations allude to a formless Universal Spirit.

Patañjali also mentions the word, Purusha, पुरुषः, (similar to Atman, आत्मन् in Vedanta/Upanishads) possibly with an intention to indicate the presence of the universal sentient being – separate but identical – within each of us (Prabhavananda & Isherwood). Hence, the belief in multiple Purushas. Ishvara, then is a superior Purusha who remains untouched by afflictions, action, fruits of action and seeds of Karma (Satyananda Saraswati).

The Chapters – Four Padas, पादाः

Samadhi Pada  समाधि पाद :      51 Sutras

  • The first chapter provides a definition of Ishvara, alluded to as a universal Absolute and the purpose of Ahbyasa, practice with detachment, Vairagya.
  • According to Sankhya Darshana, there are many Purushas and Ishvara is the superior of them all (1:24, Satyananda Saraswati).
  • Patañjali focuses on cognitive dynamics, thought modifications, and their relationship to the sense of self, the ego. (Mishra)
  • He also characterizes yoga as surrender. It is the letting go of all doing that allows yoga to reveal itself in a state of cognitive absorption called Samadhi.
  • Samadhi is the main technique the yogis learn in order to dive into the depths of the mind to achieve true freedom, Kaivalya.
  • Many levels of Samadhi are described. By repeatedly diving deeper into Samadhi, the yogis emphasize cognitive deconstruction and eradication of the ego.
  • Here, Patañjali is presenting yoga as an deep awareness state.

Sadhana Pada    साधन पाद :         55 Sutras

  • The first part analyzes the dynamics of identification of self in Kleshas, hindrances of the mind. This is linked to cognitive dynamics by way of the suffering they cause. (Mishra)
  • Patañjali presents yoga as Abhyasa, repeated practice of techniques until one is completely habituated with them, and at once detached from them (Vairagya)
  • The second part contains the practical approach to achieving the goals of yoga. Here, two forms of Yoga are outlined: Kriya Yoga (Yoga of Action) and Raja  Yoga, Ashtanga, an Eightfold systematic approach, providing a map to the inner world. (Yogananda)
  • This section explains the five ‘external’ limbs, (बहिरङ्ग  -Bahiranga) of yoga with exercises in physical, mental, emotional and moral concepts in order to increase inner-self awareness.
  • Patañjali insists that Abhyasa, practice is deep and liberating leading to the process of reflection.
  • Here, he calls perseverance of this practice – Sadhana.

 Vibhuti Pada    विभूति पाद :    56 Sutras

  • Although this chapter is named Vibhuti Pada, this is word is not used again through out this portion of the text. (Feuerstein)
  • The first part of this third chapter deals with the three ‘internal’ practices (अन्तरङ्ग – Antaranga) of the Eight-Fold Path
  • Practice of Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi is referred to as संयम:, Sumyamaha, and is a tool of achieving various perfections, Siddhis. (Taimni)
  • The second part focuses on Siddhis, supernatural powers of an adept yogi.
  • Patañjali explores the depths and subtleties of the meditative mind through Siddhis.
  • Here, yogis warn us that Siddhis are distractions (you can get lost in the maze of supernatural powers) or with discernment view them as milestones on the path. (Satchitananda)

Kaivalya Pada    कैवल्य पाद :   34 Sutras

  • Patañjali delivers a wonderful concluding chapter, summarizing the nature of consciousness and its implications on human experience, Karma.
  • He describes Kaivalya as perfect isolation or fulfilling freedom – the final fruit of yoga within which no sense of ego-self remains.
  • This chapter describes the process to the liberation of the ego and promises the attainment of the highest freedom when we bravely go beyond kleshas (hindrances) and karma-samskaras (action-reaction); i.e. deliverance from earthly bondage. (Satyananda Saraswati)
  • We arrive at a state of consciousness that is natural and wholesome, induced with pure, non-dual awareness – without prejudice and finite constraints.
  • Here, Patañjali also presents Kaivlaya, as perfect detachment – the yogis’ most sought out state of true freedom.

The Study

Traditionally, a Guru is responsible to elaborate each sutra after the student has mastered preliminary practices. Today, the Yoga Sutra is best learned from an Acharyaa, आचार्या – “the one who walks the path and leads by example”; an experienced teacher who can help you appreciate the layers of complexity in this text as every word has clear meanings and expansive connotations. He or she, will also point out that the concepts expounded in the Yoga Sutra, योगसूत्र, cannot be understood through the intellect alone.

In essence, the YogaSutra is a reference guide that inspires me to practice everyday and encourages me to trust the inner language that unfolds during my asana and pranayama practice. So far, it has been an amazing study.

Next post – how to study the योगसूत्र, Yoga Sutra.

************************************

Further Reading

http://www.swamij.com/yoga-sutras-intro.htm

Aranya Hariharananda, Swami; Mukerji, P.N. 1963.Yoga Philosophy of Patañjali. (Reprinted in 1981 by State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.

Mishra, Rammurti. M.D. 1973. Yoga Sutras – A Textbook of Yoga Psychology. Doubleday Anchor Press, Garden City, New York

Prabhavananda, Swami; Isherwood, Christopher. Patañjali Yoga Sutras. Ramakrishna Mission  Press, Mylapore, India.

Feuerstein, Georg. 1979. The Yoga-Sutra of Patañjali – A New translation and Commentary. Inner Traditions International, Rochester, Vermont.

Saraswati Satyananda, Swami. 1976. Four Chapters on Freedom – Commentary on Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. Yoga Publications Trust, Bihar School of Yoga, Munger, India

Taimni, I.K., 1961. The Science of Yoga. The Ind-Com Press, Chennai, India

Iyengar, B.K.S.2013. Core of Yoga Sutras – The Definitive Guide to the Philosophy of Yoga. Harper-Collins India

Satchitananda, Swami. 1978. The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. Integral Yoga Publications, Buckingham VA.

Yogananda, Paramahamsa; Kriyananda, Swami. 2013. Demystifying Patañjali – The Yoga Sutras. Crystal Clarity Publishers, Nevada City, CA

Govindan, Marshall. 2000. Kriya Yoga Sutra of Patañjali and the Siddhas – Translation, Commentary and Practice. Kris Yoga Publications, Quebec, Canada